Antara Saudara Mara 21

“Jadilah pemimpin untuk dirimu, anakku.
Sebulum engkau menjadi pemimpin bagi orang lain.”
Dewi Kunti

https://www.kompasiana.com/elfat67/5b7f2cbfab12ae5a4b4f8303/wayang-gelung-keling-dan-wahyu-dharma-prabu-puntadewa

It’s Time to be Clear 6

Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Franco’s Spain, Salazar’s Portugal, Papadopoulos’ Greece, Pinochet’s Chile, and Suharto’s Indonesia are the 7 regimes that Laurence W. Britt analyzed to develop his set of fascistic characteristics. Like Umberto Eco before him, he came up with 14 key characteristics, which he construed as fascist and proto-fascist means of obtaining, expanding, and maintaining power. He presented this list in an Op-Ed titled Fascism Anyone? in Volume 23, No. 2 Spring 2003 of ‘Free Inquiry’ as follows –
1. Powerful and continuing expressions of nationalism.
2. Disdain for the importance of human rights.
3. Identification of enemies/scapegoats as a unifying cause.
4. The supremacy of the military/avid militarism.
5. Rampant sexism.
6. A controlled mass media.
7. Obsession with national security.
8. Religion and ruling elite tied together.
9. Power of corporations protected.
10. Power of labor suppressed or eliminated.
11. Disdain and suppression of intellectuals and the arts
12. Obsession with crime and punishment.
13. Rampant cronyism and corruption.
14. Fraudulent elections.

While, as Daniel Malmer notes this list was not intended to be used to diagnose fascism in present governments, but rather characterize historical fascist governments, it is nevertheless interesting to see how many of these fascistic characteristic apply to the purported democracies of the world.

As a Malaysian, I find that the polity of my country seems to exhibit a good 11 of the Britt’s 14 traits. If this were not worrying enough for the long view, we have just joined a list of dysfunctional nations that have suspended parliamentary rule and instituted emergency powers in the context of the Covid-19 epidemic. This is the first such declaration of emergency since the aftermath of the race riots of May 13th 1969.

According to Bloomberg, the state of emergency was declared soon after some key leaders in the ruling coalition’s largest partner, United Malays National Organisation had called for a fresh election. They also report that the Pakatan Harapan opposition has admonished the Prime Minister for burdening the people with a declaration of emergency for the sake of saving himself. Oh Ei Sun, a senior fellow at the Singapore Institute of International Affairs has described the emergency as “totally unnecessary” and that “If you’re not careful, we will slip from parliamentary democracy into a rule by diktat.”

https://secularhumanism.org/2003/03/fascism-anyone/

https://medium.com/@danielmalmer/the-long-complicated-history-of-the-14-defining-characteristics-of-fascism-e366412932f

https://www.bloomberg.com/amp/news/articles/2021-01-12/malaysia-pm-says-it-s-not-a-coup-but-critics-see-a-power-grab

It’s Time to be Clear 2

So what is Fascism? In The Anatomy of Fascism, Robert Paxton defines fascism as “a form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victimhood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy, and purity, in which a mass-based party of committed nationalist militants, working in uneasy but effective collaboration with traditional elites, abandons democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive violence and without ethical or legal restraints goals of internal cleansing and external expansion.”

While there is no doubt that Donald Trump and by implication the Republican Party have been flirting with White Supremacy, and thereby bringing the USA within the ambit of Paxton’s definition, as a Malaysian Tamil who has lived in the UK, I can not but think of the analogous forces that have given us Brexit, Ketuanan Melayu and Hindutva.

Further, as an immigrant to Canada and as a resident of British Columbia, I struggle to disentangle my new, welcoming and multicultural home from its White Supremacist provenance, and I wonder about the future.

http://libcom.org/files/Robert%20O.%20Paxton-The%20Anatomy%20of%20Fascism%20%20-Knopf%20(2004).pdf

https://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hist151/Paxton_Fascism/Paxton%20Anatomy%20of%20Fascism%20Chap8.pdf

Lament for Anwar

Malaysia has recently been beset by an epidemic of betrayal and disloyalty in the political arena. There seems to be no penchant for integrity in the accelerating realignments of opportunity. In this never ending saga, this interminable tragedy, that is contemporary Malaysian politics, one figure stand out as a complex of qualities. A relentless fighter, a hopeless loser, beacon of hope, a focus of hatred and an object of ridicule, Anwar Ibrahim is all of these in one. He seems to be all things to all Malaysians, and while he is still the leader of the parliamentary opposition, his recent u-turn on around challenging the incumbent Bersatu-led government on the budget vote may signal an the end of his long and arduous quest to become Prime Minister.

Anwar purports to stand reform and unity over corruption and ethnocentric politics, but his past and his present actions indicate that this may just be the position he finds himself in. Anwar began as a firebrand Malay/ Islamic youth leader in the late 1960’s who was co-opted to the mainstream of Malaysian politics by Dr Mahathir Mohamed in 1982 and then dramatically ejected from his place of power in the United Malays National Organisation (Umno) and imprisoned on the basis of a sodomy conviction, arguably under the auspices of by the very same Dr M in 1993. His recent return to a place of power has, once again, been on the coat-tails of Dr. M and, once again, he has been severely let down. This recent collaboration between these two bitter political political foes was arrived at on the basis of the utter repugnance and destructiveness of the present UMNO leadership. Now, in the increasingly fragmentary and multivalent political scenario, there is some well reasoned speculation that Anwar is contemplating alignment with these very folks. As the Financial Times puts it, some might say that his journey “has been Janus-faced and opportunistic.”

The Asia Times suggests that Anwar faces such a situation today, that he might prefer to “choose to withdraw PKR from the PH coalition to stand in the general election on its own, affording him more room to negotiate with UMNO or form a new coalition with whichever parties are expedient depending on the outcome of the polls.” Disappointing though this all is from the point of view of the mandate and manifesto, I suggest that, either by reason of true conviction or pure circumstance, Anwar Ibrahim remains the best hope for a progressive and inclusive Malaysia. I am not, however, optimistic that, if Anwar pursues such a hardcore realpolitik , it will play out for the good of all the rakyat.

Related Posts –
1 Kibaran Bendera
Harapan 9
Politik Ulangan (1993 -2020)
Politik Mahathir (1998 – 2020)
Politik Melayu (1969 – ?)
Saudara Baru 2
Antara Saudara Mara 17

The above image from the from the Panji Pauh Ulong Series was shot in on the Lumut Waterfront, Perak in the course of the Dari Pusat Tasek performance presented by Percha Artspace on 25th Dec 2019. A 15 ft banner image of Anwar Ibrahim was raised on an 18ft flagstand in a performance that was loosely based on a Perak Malay cleansing ritual using cut limes. After 7 points of my body were rubbed with lime, I faced East and spat 7 times. I then threw the remains of the limes in the Westerly direction saying, “Pergi-lah semua sial jambalang daripada badan aku dan dari tubuh negara, pergilah ke Pusat Tasek Pauh Janggi (‘Misfortune and spirits of evil begone from my body and from the body of the nation, begone to the Navel of the Seas!). Water was then poured over me in order to complete the cleansing.

https://www.ft.com/content/8d5407c8-b262-11e2-8540-00144feabdc0

https://asiatimes.com/2020/12/first-notes-of-anwars-swan-song-in-malaysia/

Harapan 9

A is for Anwar! Make or break Anwar has called the scene … leaving others to fall in line … or not … Some might see this a an expression of a sense of entitlement but which leader achieved anything, even the position of leadership to begin with, without such a sense of rightness in him or herself … the outcome of course is always uncertain … we have to wait and see!

https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/544432

Anwar Shows Some Game!

“After three stints in prison and more than two decades of waiting, Anwar has had enough. He may have the number. He may not. But after Muhyiddin’s sickening betrayal, the prime minister has lost his right to condemn anyone of trying to topple his backdoor government. Even if the entire UMNO bloc shifts its support for Anwar, one should not be surprised at all.” So says FINANCE TWITTER as represented in the Malaysian Chronicle.

Make or break, for better or for worse, Anwar has made his play … the future is uncertain but the game goes on!

https://www.malaysia-chronicle.com/?p=194625

Politik Ulangan (1993 -2020)

After Lat, 1995 re-presented in The Mahathir Years blog.

1993 – Anwar Ibrahim is appointed Deputy Prime Minister and presumptive heir to Mahathir as Prime Minister of Malaysia.
2020 – Mahathir resigns as Prime Minister of Malaysia for the second time, dashing, once again, Anwar’s expectations as his air-apparent.

Nampaknya hubungan Anwar/ Mahathir memberi contoh bagi teori Pulangan Abadi yang dibentangkan oleh Friedrich Nietzsche.


Source image: https://www.mtholyoke.edu/~teh20y/classweb/worldpolitics/Anwar.html

https://mimirbook.com/ms/6e703bd2114

Politik Mahathir (1998 – 2020)

After Ismail’s ‘Wanita Lemas’ 1988 re-presented in Art KL-itique blog.

1998 – Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim is sacked from all posts in government posts, expelled from UMNO and charged under corruption and sodomy laws.

Source Image: http://artklitique.blogspot.com/2019/10/foreboding-purpose-national-art-gallery.html

Politik Ketuanan (1948 – 2020)

After Cartoon in Majlis, 6 September 1947 re-presented in Hartal: The Untold Story by Dinesweri Puspanadan

1948, the Malayan Union was replaced by the Federation of Malaya.

The original cartoon addresses, amongst other issues, the PUTERA vs UMNO conflict prior to Federation in 1948. The DR is, of course, Dr. Burhanuddin Helmi.

Source Image: https://www.slideshare.net/ComChe/hartaltheuntoldstory