5. Meritocracy: A form of government based on fair competition and excellence. Of course, while claims are made for this form of governance, it can not exist without equality of opportunity. This is a reflexive relationship. The more opportunity a community of class has, the more merit its members might accrue. Less opportunity for the group will make it harder for individuals to achieve meritorious results. Unmitigated meritocracy might bring what I call synchronic justice, but it might be unjust in terms of the history of opportunity. This historical dimension can be addressed by affirmative action, which might enable what I term diachronic justice. The problem, however, is that it is very difficult to ascertain when diachronic justice has been done and synchronic justice should be the goal.Malaysia’s NEP is a case in point.
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