Keling Pariah 2

Indians should be proud to be called Pariah! The fact that the term is offensive to Indians, both in India and in the diaspora, is really a symptom of our own horrendous internal racism or catseism. Pariah is the name of one of the oppressed Dalit communities in Tamil Nadu and, according to devendrakulam.org, the English language the use of the word ‘pariah’, meaning ‘social outcast’ was first recorded in 1613. Devendrakulam.org also notes that Paraiyan is mentioned in the Classical Tamil Sangam literature in the Puram text – “Without the following four – Thudian, Panan, Parayan, Kadamban the citizens’ Categorization is not complete” . These are all categories of music workers – Thudian is a player of the Thudi drum, Panan is a singer Singer, Parayan is a player of the Parai drum, and Kadamban is a player of the instrument named Kadambu which I think might be a katam (கடம்), the clay water pot vessel that is used as a drum (I stand to be corrected).

Devendrakulam.org offers a speculative narrative of the descent of the community as Bhramanism rose in South India through the centuries. Among the intriguing possibilities offered here are the idea that the Paraiyar were Buddhists who held out against the ascendant Bhramanism and that some of the Shudra casts of the contemporary South like my own Jaffna Vellala caste emerged from the Paraiyar in a process of assimilation. The Paraiyar community has, despite millennia of oppression within the entrenched Brahmanical order, produced significant figures in Indian social, political and cultural life including, M. C. Rajah, R. Srinivasan, Thol. Thirumavalavan, Illayaraja and Pa. Ranjith. I repeat, Indians (I include Jaffna Tamils) should be proud to be called Pariah!

Image: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Castes_and_Tribes_of_Southern_India/Paraiyan

http://devendrakulam.org/uploads/Who%20are%20the%20Paraiyars.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraiyar

Keling Pariah

This is a super exposition on the Keling word on A Daview Originals. Although there are errors, for example, according to the Malay Concordance Project, in the 1963 edition of Cherita Jenaka, orang Keling  was changed to orang India and not, as the presenter claims, the other way around. Sorry lah it is in Tamil!

https://www.youtube.com/c/DaViewProduction/videos

http://mcp.anu.edu.au/N/CJen_bib.html

A Keling Lexicon Q – Z

Telinga Keling, Silver Halide Print, Niranjan Rajah, 1999. Permanent Collection of the National Visual Art Gallery, Kuala Lumpur

A Keling Lexicon A – J
A Keling Lexicon K – P

Q
R
Raja Keling
Rakyat Keling
Rama Keling
Rojak Keling
Roti Keling
Rendang Keling
S
Sembah Keling
Sembang Keling
Sireh Keling
(Kayu) Sono Keling
Subang Keling
Sungai Keling
T
Tanah Keling
Tanjung Keling
Taubat Keling
Telinga Keling
Temberang Keling
Terup Keling
U
Ubi Keling
Ugut Keling
Usada (Pengubatan) Keling
V
W

Wayang Keling
X
Y
Z

Addendum: Keling words with no Indian reference (happy to be corrected)
Keling Gawai
Paku Keling
Pasang Keling


A Keling Lexicon K – P

Telinga Keling, Silver Halide Print, Niranjan Rajah, 1999. Permanent Collection of the National Visual Art Gallery, Kuala Lumpur

A Keling Lexicon A – J
A Keling Lexicon Q – Z

K
Kacang Keling
Kain Keling
Kampung Keling
Kapal Keling
Kapitan Keling
Keling Karam
Kecamatan Keling
Keling Kelate
Kemudi Keling
(Jika Perak) Kerani Keling
(Ikan) Kerapu Keling
Keris (Sempana) Keling
Kesumba Keling
Ketuk Keling (Dulu)
(Darah) Keturunan Keling
Koboi Keling
Kote Keling
Kuli Keling
L
Lidah Keling
Lorong (Samat) Keling
M
Keling Mabuk (Todi)
Mamu Keling
Keling Maya
Keling Mabuk (Todi)
Melayu Keling
Mengkuang Keling
N
Negeri Keling
O

P
Pacar Keling (Surabaya)
Pahlawan Keling
Pandai Keling
(Corak) Parang Keling
Peguam Keling
Pendekar Keling
Penulis Keling
Keling Pariah
Keling Pelikat
Penulis Keling
Pisang (Abu) Keling
Pisang (Kelat) Keling
Pukul Keling (Dulu)
Pusing Keling
Putar Keling

A Keling Lexicon A – J

Telinga Keling, Silver Halide Print, Niranjan Rajah, 1999. Permanent Collection of the National Visual Art Gallery, Kuala Lumpur

A Keling Lexicon K – P
A Keling Lexicon Q – Z

A
Akal Keling
Anak Keling (Bermain Api)
Auta Keling
Ayam Keling
B
Babi Keling
Keling Balik (India)
Keling Bang (Azan)
Bawang (Merah) Keling
Belanga Keling
Benua Keling
Beras Keling
(Sang) Bhramana Keling
Keling Bodoh
(Anak-putu) Bono Keling
Keling Botol
Bukit Keling (Johor)
Bunuh Keling
Butuh Keling
C
Cempaka Keling
Cakap (Macam) Keling
Cucak Keling
D
Doktor Keling
E
F
G
(Ikan) Gelama Keling
Gelung Keling
Gempar Keling
Gendang Keling
Gertak Keling
Gerantang Keling
(Kerja) Golok Keling
Gulai Keling
(Tari) Keling Gunojoyo
Gunting (Rambut) Keling
H
Hulubalang Keling
Keling Hindu
I
Keling Islam
J
Jambu Keling
Janji Keling
Keling (Teater) Jikey

Towards A Keling Lexicon

Telinga Keling, Silver Halide Print, Niranjan Rajah, 1999. Permanent Collection of the National Visual Art Gallery, Kuala Lumpur

KELING dan MELAYU tak dapat dipisahkan,
Sejarah dan keturunanpun ada kesinambungan.
Persuratan mulia Makkal tak rasa,
Kerana memaki namanya sudahpun berleluasa.

It’s Time to be Clear 5

In an essay titled Ur Fascism, Umberto Eco lists 14 Fascistic characteristics. This essay appeared in the June 22, 1995 issue of the New York Review. I have taken the liberty of encapsulating Eco’s explanation of these characteristics as follows –
1. A penchant for traditionalism
2. The rejection of modernism
3. The cult of action
4. A prohibition of disagreement
5. A fear of difference
6. An appeal to the middle class
7. A belief in conspiracy theories
8. A feeling of humiliation
9. The glorification of war
10. A contempt for weakness
11. The cult of heroism
12. The cult of machismo
13. A charismatic populism
14. A stupefaction of language

It is instructive to compare, contrast and combine this list with Robert Paxton’s List from his The Anatomy of Fascism which I present in my post titled It’s Time to be Clear 3. It is imperative, given the unprecedented storming of Capitol Hill by Trump supporters, that Americans and, indeed, people of all nations consider their national polity in these terms. As we move deeper into the 21st Century, many other exemplars of democracy, albeit of less consequence on the world stage than the USA, will fare just as badly, if measured against these criteria.

For Americans, I suggest that this means more than seeking retribution from the Donald. While I do not doubt that he is culpable, I feel that such simplistic scapegoating, belies the true nature of American exceptionalism, of the bipartisan dialectic of its military-industrial project: War on Crime – Globalization – War on Terror – Yes, we Can! – Make America Great Again! The Republican Party will want to purge the memory of their willing Trumpian engagement from the record and the Democrats will want to foreground this entanglement for political advantage, but all this will distract us from their reciprocal complicity in their nation descent from democracy into oligarchy and authoritarianism.

https://www.nybooks.com/articles/1995/06/22/ur-fascism/?lp_txn_id=1012119

It’s Time to be Clear 4

Fascism must be distinguished from other kinds of authoritarianism and dictatorship and according to Gaetano Salvemini its key characteristic is the displacement of democracy and due process by what Robert Paxton has paraphrased as the “acclamation of the street.” Unlike other forms of oppression, fascism redirects the peoples’ passions into “an obligatory domestic unity” based on scapegoating within the nation and xenophobia without. In this definition the term ‘fascist’ can not be applied to even the most oppressive predemocratic dictatorships as it involves the idea of sliding away from free institutions in pursuit of a nationalist imperative.

In The Anatomy of Fascism Paxton proposes five stages in this decline. Stage One is the establishment of radical Right movements with some explicit or implicit link to fascism. He asserts that this has been the situation in “every industrial, urbanized society with mass politics” since the end of World War II. In Stage Two, these movements become rooted in their political systems as the mainstream elites start to cultivate and direct them against purported internal enemies. Stage Three is the seizure of power, Stage Four, the exercise of power and Stage Five involves the movements radicalization or entropy.

While Donald Trump’s escapade on Capitol Hill is a premature acting out, an impotent folly and a parody of Stage Three, it might also be a foreshadowing of more odious things to come in the United States of America.

http://libcom.org/files/Robert%20O.%20Paxton-The%20Anatomy%20of%20Fascism%20%20-Knopf%20(2004).pdfhttp://libcom.org/files/Robert%20O.%20Paxton-The%20Anatomy%20of%20Fascism%20%20-Knopf%20(2004).pdf
https://time.com/5908244/strongman-fascism-history/